5 Important Cognitive Biases That Fuel Conflict

Published: September 30, 2023 | Last Updated: December 1, 2023by Jeremy Pollack

In our daily interactions, conflicts often arise due to differences in opinions, values, or beliefs. While these conflicts may seem unavoidable, understanding the underlying cognitive biases can help us navigate through them more effectively. Cognitive biases are inherent shortcuts in our thinking patterns that can lead to distorted judgments and decision-making. In this blog post, we will examine five important cognitive biases that commonly fuel conflict and explore strategies to mitigate their influence.

1) Confirmation Bias

Confirmation bias is our tendency to search for, interpret, and remember information that confirms our preexisting beliefs while ignoring or dismissing contrary evidence. In a conflict scenario, individuals tend to pay more attention to information that supports their own views, reinforcing their position and making it challenging to find a common ground. This bias perpetuates conflict by amplifying disagreements and making it difficult for parties to see things from a different perspective.

To mitigate the impact of confirmation bias, it is crucial to actively seek out diverse viewpoints and evidence that challenge our own beliefs. Engaging in open discussions, considering alternative explanations, and being receptive to valid counterarguments can help foster a more objective and constructive approach to conflict resolution.

2) Anchoring Bias

Anchoring bias refers to our tendency to rely too heavily on the first piece of information encountered when making decisions, even if it is irrelevant or misleading. In conflicted situations, this bias can manifest as the fixed adherence to initial positions or proposals, making it difficult for the parties to explore a range of possibilities. The anchoring bias locks individuals into rigid positions and inhibits the flexibility necessary for finding mutually beneficial resolutions.

To overcome anchoring bias, it is necessary to employ strategies like reframing the problem and considering multiple alternatives. Encouraging brainstorming sessions and allowing time for reflection can lead to creative solutions that go beyond the initial anchor points and help resolve conflicts in a more constructive manner.

3) Bias Blind Spot

The bias blind spot refers to our failure to recognize our own cognitive biases, while readily identifying them in others. In conflicts, this bias can lead to a lack of self-awareness and an inability to objectively evaluate our own contributions to the disagreement. By attributing conflict solely to the biases of others, individuals perpetuate conflict and hinder progress towards resolution.

To mitigate the bias blind spot, maintaining a constant self-reflection practice is crucial. Regularly challenging our assumptions, seeking feedback from others, and fostering a growth mindset can help uncover personal biases and promote a more empathetic and understanding attitude towards conflict resolution.

4) Dunning-Kruger Effect

The Dunning-Kruger effect describes the cognitive bias where individuals with low ability or knowledge in a particular area overestimate their own competence. In conflicts, this bias can lead to inflated self-assurance and the dismissal of opposing perspectives. This overconfidence serves as a major obstacle to reaching productive compromises as it reduces the willingness to consider alternative viewpoints.

To counteract the Dunning-Kruger effect, fostering a culture of humility and acknowledging the limits of our knowledge becomes crucial. Encouraging continuous learning, actively seeking feedback from experts, and cultivating a willingness to reconsider our positions can help mitigate this bias and lead to more effective conflict resolution.

5) Zero-Sum Bias

The zero-sum bias refers to our tendency to view situations as win-lose scenarios, where any gain made by one party must result in an equal loss for another. In conflicts, this bias perpetuates a competitive mindset, pitting one party against the other and hindering collaboration towards mutually beneficial outcomes.

To overcome the zero-sum bias, it is essential to reframe conflicts as opportunities for integrative solutions, where both parties can benefit. Encouraging dialogue, building trust, and finding common ground can help shift the focus from a win-lose mindset to one of cooperation and compromise.


Conflict is an inevitable part of human interactions, but understanding the cognitive biases that fuel conflicts can empower us to approach them more effectively. By recognizing and mitigating biases such as confirmation bias, anchoring bias, bias blind spot, Dunning-Kruger effect, and zero-sum bias, we can foster open dialogue, empathy, and collaboration, leading to more constructive conflict resolution. By embracing these strategies, we can transform conflicts into opportunities for growth, cooperation, and mutual understanding.

Jeremy Pollack

Jeremy Pollack is the Founder and CEO of Pollack Peacebuilding Systems.